December 20, 2020
The Kyoto Protocol, a pioneering environmental treaty adopted at COP3 in Japan in 1997, is the first time nations have agreed on country-by-country emission reduction targets. The protocol, which only came into force in 2005, set binding emission reduction targets only for industrialized countries, based on the fact that they are responsible for most of the world`s high greenhouse gas emissions. The United States first signed the agreement, but never ratified it; President George W. Bush argued that the agreement would hurt the U.S. economy because developing countries such as China and India would not be included. In the absence of the participation of these three countries, the effectiveness of the treaty was limited, as its objectives covered only a small fraction of total global emissions. Funding is essential to support emerging economies and support the transition to carbon-free economies. The agreement provides that from 2020, $100 billion in public and private funds will have to be mobilized each year to finance projects that allow countries to adapt to the effects of climate change (sea level rise, droughts, etc.) or to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These funds should be gradually increased and some developing countries will also be able to become donors on a voluntary basis to help the poorest countries.
For the agreement to enter into force, it took at least 55 countries that account for at least 55% of global emissions. The agreement was opened in April 2016 for a formal commitment and was concluded in April 2017. After the leader of a country decided to accede to the agreement, it took the approval of the national government or the adoption of a national law for that nation to participate officially. Around the world, 600,000 people took part in demonstrations in support of a strong agreement, such as the Global Climate March, organized by 350.org (and other events such as Alternatiba. , village of alternatives). Paris has been banned from public gatherings in the wake of the recent terrorist attacks (state of emergency), but allowed thousands of people to demonstrate on 12 December against what they consider too weak a treaty.  An illegal demonstration was also held in Paris, during which violent clashes broke out between police and anarchists, 10 police officers were injured and 317 people arrested.   According to the organizing committee at the beginning of the discussions, the expected end result was an agreement to limit global warming to “well below 2 degrees Celsius” above pre-industrial levels. The agreement requires that there be no anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in the second half of the 21st century. In the adopted version of the Paris Agreement, the parties will also make “efforts” to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius.  According to some scientists, the 1.5-C target will require zero emissions between 2030 and 2050.
 Prior to the conference, 146 national climate bodies publicly presented a national climate contribution project (“Intended Nationally Determined Contributions,” INDCs). These proposed commitments have been estimated to limit global warming to 2.7 degrees Celsius by 2100.  In the EU, the EU has proposed that INDC commit to reducing its emissions by 40% by 2030 compared to 1990.  The agreement provides for a “comprehensive state of affairs” that reviews national objectives in order to “update and improve” them every five years from 2023.  However, unlike the previous Kyoto Protocol, no country-by-country timetable or emissions targets were included in the Paris Agreement. The agreement recognizes the role of non-partisan stakeholders in the fight against climate change, including cities, other sub-national authorities, civil society, the private sector and others.
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